Our charity brings together thousands of people who share a common belief - that organic growing is essential for a healthy and sustainable world. Like the name implies, aquatic grasses are grassy plants than grow in water. The rush family (Juncaceae) includes Juncus, the common rushes, and Luzula, the woodrushes. Plants in the genus Juncus are known as rushes and reside in the Juncaceae family. Sometimes it is just a certain part of the plant that irritates, like the sap of Euphorbia or the roots of hyacinth. A fairly short rush, reaching only 8–18" tall, it is highly adaptable and will grow in almost any soil type or moisture level. Cattails, rushes, bulrushes, all words used to describe a tall grass like plant that grows in wetlands distinguished in mid summer through fall by the tall central spike that ends in a brown sausage shaped flower and seed pod. Poison ivy may come to mind, but many common garden plants can also be skin irritants for sensitive people. There are many native aquatic grasses, sedges and rushes in Florida. GRASSES (Poaceae) This section shows some of the many Grasses found in Ireland. frog grass, saltweed, J. minutulus) The toad rush is the most important annual species of rush and is common throughout the UK. A variety of insects feed on rushes and a number of pathogens attack them too. In an established sward, regular annual mowing for hay reduces compact rush. Through campaigning, advice, community work and research, our aim is to get everyone growing ‘the organic way’. Heath rush can grow on a range of soils but cannot withstand competition from the fast growing species in base-rich habitats and is usually confined to acidic or peat soils. and wood rushes (Luzula spp.). Equisetum hyemale is the botanical name for the plant known commonly as \"rough horsetail\" or \"scouring rush.\" Its ancestors were gigantic plants in Paleozoic times. The seeds become slimy when wet and adhere to boots and tyres, hence the distribution along trackways. Plant my rushes Plant preferably between September and the end of November or between March and the end of April, when the winter reserves are formed and the temperatures are not too low. It has a distinctive appearance and shows little variation. Juncus patens (California Gray Rush) is an evergreen perennial plant that forms dense clumps of narrow, erect, gray-green to gray-blue, leafless stems. Reeds and rushes are pond plants that will attract wildlife such as hummingbirds, dragonflies and butterflies to you water feature. Grazing may also help but is unlikely to be effective alone. Undisturbed plants grow into clumps over 1 m tall but mowing or heavy trampling alters this to a uniform spread of shoots. However, it may not be possible to plough on shallow soils upland soils. It's excellent in container gardens. Seeds of hard rush are dispersed by wind and rain splash, also on the feet of birds and on shoes. They are native to North America and Europe. It provides texture in shaded garden areas and is perfect for planting under oaks and other deciduous trees. Rushes - Juncaceae Family. Because they can ride out intermittent dry spells, theyre useful for rain gardens and bioretention, and other features where water conditions are variable. common rush, J. communis var. Soft rush (J. effusus L.) (Syn. Birds and other various creatures eat and live in this type of bulrush. Home>Native Plant Resource Center>Upper Peninsula Native Plants>Native Grasses, Rushes, and Sedges Grasses and sedges perform many important environmental functions. Hard rush (J. inflexus L.) (Syn. The best-known and largest genus is Juncus. Plants in the genus Juncus are known as rushes and reside in the Juncaceae family. with 225 species, and the wood-rushes (Luzula spp.) Rushes are typical wetland plants. From late spring to summer, rounded heads of very small, greenish brown, scaly flowers emerge on the sides of the stems just below the stem tips. North American rush, J. macer). The rush family (Juncaceae) includes Juncus, the common rushes, and Luzula, the woodrushes. The seeds germinate in April-May following soil disturbance. Juncus alpinoarticulatusNorthern Green Rush; Juncus arcticusBaltic Rush; Juncus articulatusJointed Rush; Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Where an uncut field of rushes is ploughed the rushes may reappear between the furrow slices. The flowers are wind or more rarely insect pollinated. Any of several stiff aquatic or marsh plants of the genus Juncus, having hollow or pithy stems and small flowers. goal $12000. The jointed rush is widespread in waterlogged areas in hilly districts. Jointed rush (J. articulatus L.) (Syn. Common rush can be grown as an evergreen container plant or in the bog or water garden. The vegetative tillers grow out into the light and become re-established. The most species-rich groups are the rushes (Juncus spp.) The rhizomes that develop form a dense horizontal mat 6 to 50 mm below the soil surface. Most of the Juncus species grow exclusively in wetland habitats. The seeds require light for germination. Light and moisture are required for germination. Example of the bulrush genus Schoenoplectus. The merest trifle; a straw. Rushes are a particular problem when poor pasture is ploughed for cropping as happened during World Wars 1 and 2. These invertebrates in turn are used as food by fish and other wildlife species (e.g. Cutting before flowering may help to stop the spread by preventing further seed shed but there may be many seeds present already in the soil seedbank. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... No need to romaine calm—it’s the plant quiz you’ve been waiting for! It can withstand water logging but not submergence. tend to grow in moist or wet soil in areas with full sun. Their stems are often used to weave strong mats, baskets, and chair seats. Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are all known to cause an itchy rash. The average number of seeds per plant is 33,000. J. effusus, called soft rush, is used to make the tatami mats of Japan. Some plants can cause itchy rashes when touched. Share. J. communis var conglomeratus ). is a registered charity in England and Wales (no. Plant Description: Tufted or rhizomatous perennials with smooth, hairless rounded stems that are sometimes hollow and sometimes contain pith. J. obtusifolius). The blunt-flowered rush is a rhizomatous perennial native in fens, marshes and dune slacks. This hugely impressive bulrush is, in the wild, found growing beside lakes and ponds. Bulrushes grow in wet locations, including ponds, marshes, and lakes. Sharp-flowered rush (J. acutiflorus Ehrh. Related varieties of pickerel rush: Blue to mauve or purple varieties are most common, but white-flowered pickerel rushes … The Plants Database includes the following 125 species of Juncus . It is still under construction with more species to be added. It is common through most of the British Isles. In a study of the annual percent decline of toad rush seeds in cultivated soil there was no measurable loss of viability with time. Reeds and rushes are great marginal pond plants that grow at the edge of the pond adding a softening to the pond edge. The most commonly known rushes include: Heath Rush ( Juncus squarrossus ), Field wood-rush ( Luzula campestris) and Hard rush ( Juncus inflexus ). Initially, seedlings are susceptible to drying-out, shading and mechanical damage but once established they become more resistant. However, some seed may not be dispersed until the flower stem decays and falls to the ground in spring, leading to small clumps of seedlings. Bury the roots a few centimeters so that the foliage is flush. There are 12 seeds per capsule. It occurs in wet meadows and pastures on less heavy soils poor in nutrients. From late spring to summer, rounded heads of very small, greenish brown, scaly flowers emerge on the sides of the stems just below the stem tips. Flowering occurs in late June and July. In lowland areas that flood naturally, topping followed by flooding is effective on wet grassland. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Clicking on the thumbnail image shows photographs, plant details and a link to the BSBI distribution map for that species. Light is required for germination. The curious corkscrew rush loves wet or boggy conditions. • Rushes: Solid, round stems; leaves few; fruit a several to many-seeded capsule surrounded by 6 scale-like structures (tepals) Stem Cross Sections Illustrations from Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin, Version 3.1 by Eggers and Reed (2014) BOTANICAL TERMS: RUSHES (Juncus) It is common throughout Britain and is native in damp grassland, heaths, moors, marshes and dune slacks. This perennial rush is native in marshes, dune slacks, wet meadows or by water. It is native in bogs, marshes, damp grassland and on the margins of rivers and ponds throughout Britain. Fruits of the three plant groups in question are a bit more distinctive than their flowers, with some sedges producing inch-long prickly clusters of beak-like fruits (above); by comparison, many rushes make tiny globular fruiting structures (below) less than one-eighth-inch in diameter. Common rushes are used in many parts of the world for weaving into chair bottoms, mats, and basketwork, and the pith serves as wicks in open oil lamps and for tallow candles (rushlights). Seedlings are sensitive to competition and to moisture deficit but become tougher once established. Like the name implies, aquatic grasses are grassy plants than grow in water. In species where the leaves are reduced to small points, the leaf sheaths are referred to as cataphylls. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Few are blown more than 2.5 m. The seeds become mucilaginous and stick together when wet. Sowing to a short-term crop followed by further surface cultivations may be best before establishing a long-term sward. Floating plants have leaves and sometimes stems that float at or on the water surface. Toad rush (J. bufonius L.) (Syn. Compact rush flowers from early May to July and a plant may produce 500,000 seeds. The common thread is slender green stems, insignificant flowers and leaves, and a love of water. It occurs throughout Britain on neutral, base rich and acid soils, although the impression is sometimes given that compact rush is restricted to the latter. A non-flowering plant, it … Hydrilla (Hydrillaverticillata), originally from Korea, is an intrusive plant that grows in rivers … Soft rush, the main weedy species, is widespread and forms tussocks that extend by means of the short creeping rhizomes from which new shoots and ultimately new plants arise. It is a hard type of bull rush that can handle too much or not enough water. It flowers from June to August. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Common and widespread, freshwater rushes include the native, Hoary Rush (J. radula), Finger Rush (J. subsecundus), Hollow Rush (J. amabilis), Yellow Rush (J. flavidus), Green Rush (J. gregiflorus), Tall Rush (J. procerus), Pallid Rush (J. pallidus), Loose-flower Rush (J. pauciflorus), Joint-leaf Rush (J. holoschoenus) and Broad-leaf Rush (J. planifolius) and the introduced, Jointed Rush (J. articularus) … It is absent or stunted on dry soils. The hard rush is a tuft forming species with the shoots borne on an extensive rhizome system. Plants come and go, but the love for philodendron among the indoor plant growers remain the same! The horsetail genus (Equisetum) is called scouring rush, or Dutch rush, because the plants’ silica-laden stalks are used for scouring metal and other hard surfaces. Plants may not flower until 5 years old. This woodland grass can be found in a variety of soil types and moisture situations from moist to quite dry. Dragonflies need these types of pond plants to survive around your pond. It's a perennial that is evergreen (although the green color will fade some during the course of a rough winter), but this ancient plant is more closely related to ferns than to the perennials we are most accustomed to growing in our gardens. The average seed number per capsule is 67 and there may be over 200,000 seeds per plant. In closed communities regeneration is mainly by rhizome growth. Grasses, and the grass-like rushes and sedges, make an excellent addition to any garden. Updates? Prairie Nursery. The most species-rich groups are the rushes (Juncus spp.) Handouts: Introduction to Grasses, Sedges and Rushes by Steve Eggers The blunt-flowered rush flowers in July-August and seed is shed in September-October. shining-fruited rush, J. lampocarpus). References. Stout roots penetrate vertically downwards to 25 cm. Leaves are mainly basal and can be flat but more often rounded and stem-like. Rushes are mostly perennial, nonwoody plants. New Zealand has 15 native and 32 introduced species of Juncus – the most common type of rush. The common thread is slender green stems, insignificant flowers and leaves, and a love of water. There are about 400 species in the rush family, distributed among eight or nine genera. Because they can ride out intermittent dry spells, theyre useful for rain gardens and bioretention, and other features where water conditions are variable. List of rushes (Juncaceae family) in Minnesota. They help create humus in the soil with their roots and leaves while holding slopes in place and protecting streambanks and other water edges from eroding. long, flowers with petals and sepals open at maturity; perianth segments (corolla and calyx divisions) with a green midrib, individual flowers 4 to 5 mm long with 6 stamens and pronounced bright pink twisted stigmas . Soil type: Moist, Boggy Height: 100cm Spread: 7cm Time to divide plants: March to March . 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